Pathological features of the lung in fatal high altitude pulmonary edema occurring at moderate altitude in Japan
Droma, Y × Hanaoka, M Hotta, Junichi Naramoto, A Koizumi, T Fujimoto, K Honda, Y Kobayashi, T Kubo, K #
Mary ann liebert inc publ
High altitude medicine & biology vol:2 issue:4 pages:515-523
In order to characterize the pathological features of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) occurring at moderate altitude in Japan, we performed routine hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining in lung materials from HAPE autopsied cases. We also undertook advanced immunohistochemical staining for observation of type II pneumocytes, pulmonary surfactant (PS), and mast cells in the lung of HAPE cases to examine the biological changes within the lung parenchyma. The pathological findings of HAPE were characterized by alveolar edema, congestion of pulmonary vessels, alveolar hyaline membranes, alveolar hemorrhage, and multithrombi and fibrin clots, but maintained alveolar structure. The immunostaining results showed that the type II pneumocytes were cellular fusion, deformity, and exfoliation from the walls of alveoli; the PS not only lined the alveolar surface, but was also patchily distributed within alveoli; and the number of mast cells were increased (9.0 +/- 0.9 cells/mm(2)) compared to that in controls (1.1 +/- 0.4 cells/mm(2)) (p < 0.01). We conclude that the pathological features of HAPE at moderate altitude in Japan are similar to others reported worldwide, and that the type II pneumocytes, PS, and mast cells may contribute to some extent to pathophysiological parts in the development and progression of HAPE.