Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry vol:55 issue:1 pages:127-135
This article addresses the effect of moisture content (0.8-9.9%) during dry-heating (80 degrees C) on selected physicochemical (solubility, turbidity, residual denaturation enthalpy, aggregation, surface hydrophobicity, and sulfhydryl content) and functional (foaming ability, foam density, and stability) properties of freeze-dried egg white (FDEW). Moisture content during dry-heating proved to be a parameter determining the functionality of the resulting egg white powder. The degree of conformational changes induced in the egg white proteins by dry-heating was strongly dependent on the amount of water present. Preferentially, dry-heating at 80 degrees C should be performed on egg white powder with a moisture content below 6.8%, as the loss of protein solubility above this value is extensive. In addition to insoluble aggregates, soluble, strongly stabilized aggregates were also formed, especially at higher moisture contents. The decrease in denaturation enthalpy, increase in surface hydrophobicity, and exposure of SH groups previously hidden in the protein core and their subsequent oxidation were more pronounced at prolonged dry-heating times and at higher moisture contents. These conformational changes resulted in improved foaming ability and foams with lower density. No effect of dry-heating on the foam stability was observed.