In the past, antidepressants have been thought to possess proconvulsant properties. This assumption remains controversial, however, because anticonvulsant effects have been attributed to certain antidepressants. To date, it remains unclear which antidepressants can be used for the treatment of patients with epilepsy with depression. The present study was designed to determine the anticonvulsant and/or proconvulsant effects of three antidepressants (citalopram, reboxetine, bupropion) against pilocarpine- and pentylenetetrazole-induced acute seizures in larval zebrafish and mice. In zebrafish, all antidepressants were anticonvulsant in the pentylenetetrazole model. In addition, citalopram was anticonvulsant in the zebrafish pilocarpine model, whereas reboxetine and bupropion were without significant effect. In mice all three antidepressants increased some thresholds for pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsive-like behaviors at varying doses, whereas thresholds for pilocarpine-induced convulsive-like behaviors were generally lowered, particularly at the highest doses tested. In general we conclude that the convulsant liability of antidepressants is model and concentration dependent. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.