The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the secondary structure of recombinant human interferon-gamma (rhIFN-7) and its biologically inactive truncated form rhIFN-DeltaC15 has been studied using Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy. In situ observation of the pressure-induced changes using the diamond anvil cell shows that the alpha-helical structure is mainly transformed into disordered structure at high pressure. Increasing pressure also induces the formation of a gel. Addition of 0.5 M MgCl2 significantly reduces the pressure stability. Releasing the pressure below 300 MPa results in the formation of intermolecular antiparallel beta-sheets, which is seldom observed. This suggests that the intermolecular beta-sheet of rhIFN-gamma is stabilized by electrostatic interactions that are disrupted at high pressure. For comparison we also studied the effect of temperature. Temperature-induced changes reflect extensive transformation of alpha-helical structure into intermolecular antiparallel beta-sheet, as is usually observed for most proteins.