Pay-for-performance is increasingly used as a system intervention to support quality improvement. Programs are however developed, implemented and evaluated in a heterogeneous way. This is partly due to the broad and disparate theoretical and empirical foundation of P4P practice, which is rapidly evolving. This paper guides the reader through the essential steps which should be taken into consideration when setting up a P4P program. To this end a model called 'Model for Implementing and Monitoring Incentives for Quality' (MIMIQ) is presented.