A survey for near-infrared H-2 emission in Herbig Ae/Be stars: emission from the outer disks of HD 97048 and HD 100546
Carmona, A × van der Plas, G van den Ancker, M. E Audard, M Waters, L. B. F. M Fedele, D Acke, Bram Pantin, E #
Astronomy & Astrophysics vol:533 pages:-
We report on a sensitive search for H-2 1-0 S(1), 1-0 S(0) and 2-1 S(1) ro-vibrational emission at 2.12, 2.22 and 2.25 mu m in a sample of 15 Herbig Ae/Be stars employing CRIRES, the ESO-VLT near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph, at R similar to 90 000. We report the detection of the H-2 1-0 S(1) line toward HD 100546 and HD 97048. In the other 13 targets, the line is not detected. The H-2 1-0 S(0) and 2-1 S(1) lines are undetected in all sources. These observations are the first detection of near-IR H-2 emission in HD 100546. The H-2 1-0 S(1) lines observed in HD 100546 and HD 97048 are observed at a velocity consistent with the rest velocity of both stars, suggesting that they are produced in the circumstellar disk. In HD 97048 the emission is spatially resolved and it is observed to extend at least up to 200 AU from the star. We report an increase of one order of magnitude in the H-2 1-0 S(1) line flux with respect to previous measurements taken in 2003 for this star, which suggests line variability. In HD 100546 the emission is tentatively spatially resolved and may extend at least up to 50 AU from the star. Modeling of the H-2 1-0 S(1) line profiles and their spatial extent with flat Keplerian disks shows that most of the emission is produced at a radius larger than 5 AU. Upper limits to the H-2 1-0 S(0)/1-0 S( 1) and H-2 2-1 S(1)/1-0 S(1) line ratios in HD 97048 are consistent with H-2 gas at T > 2000 K and suggest that the emission observed may be produced by X-ray excitation. The upper limits for the line ratios for HD 100546 are inconclusive. Because the H-2 emission is located at large radii, for both sources a thermal emission scenario (i.e., gas heated by collisions with dust) is implausible. We argue that the observation of H-2 emission at large radii may be indicative of an extended disk atmosphere at radii > 5 AU. This may be explained by a hydrostatic disk in which gas and dust are thermally decoupled or by a disk wind caused by photoevaporation.