Machine Vision and Applications vol:25 issue:3 pages:633-647
Several applications require information about street furniture. Part of the task is to survey all traffic signs. This has to be done for millions of km of road, and the exercise needs to be repeated every so often. We used a van with 8 roof-mounted cameras to drive through the streets and took images every meter. The paper proposes a pipeline for the efficient detection and recognition of traffic signs from such images. The task is challenging, as illumination conditions change regularly, occlusions are frequent, sign positions and orientations vary substantially, and the actual signs are far less similar among equal types than one might expect. We combine 2D and 3D techniques to improve results beyond the state-of-the-art, which is still very much preoccupied with single view analysis. For the initial detection in single frames, we use a set of colour- and shape-based criteria. They yield a set of candidate sign patterns. The selection of such candidates allows for a significant speed up over a sliding window approach while keeping similar performance. A speedup is also achieved through a proposed efficient bounded evaluation of AdaBoost detectors. The 2D detections in multiple views are subsequently combined to generate 3D hypotheses. A Minimum Description Length formulation yields the set of 3D traffic signs that best explains the 2D detections. The paper comes with a publicly available database, with more than 13 000 traffic signs annotations.
Timofte R., Zimmermann K., Van Gool L., ''Multi-view traffic sign detection, recognition, and 3D localisation'', Machine vision and applications, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 633-647, April 2014.