Staphylococcal peptidoglycan initiates an inflammatory response and procoagulant activity in human vascular endothelial cells: a comparison with highly purified lipoteichoic acid and TSST-1
Mattsson, Eva × Heying, Ruth van de Gevel, Joke S Hartung, Thomas Beekhuizen, Henry #
Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V. on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology vol:52 issue:1 pages:110-117
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most significant pathogens in human sepsis and endocarditis. A hallmark of these endovascular S. aureus infections is that the coagulation system is triggered by a tissue factor (TF)-dependent pathway. This study demonstrates that highly purified S. aureus peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and TSST-1 increase TF mRNA and TF surface protein in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs). Concomitantly, peptidoglycan- and LTA-activated ECs express significant TF-dependent procoagulant activity (TF PCA). In addition peptidoglycan, but not LTA or TSST-1, induced surface expression of the EC inflammation markers ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, which supported the adhesion of monocytes to these ECs. During the coculture of peptidoglycan-activated ECs and adherent monocytes, a marked additional increase of TF PCA was observed. Marginal increases in TF PCA were observed in cocultures of monocytes with LTA- or TSST-1-activated ECs. This study defines in particular staphylococcal peptidoglycan, previously known as a potent initiator of TF PCA in monocytes, as also being an activator of a coagulant response in human ECs that is further intensified by the presence of surface-bound monocytes.