Learning Environments Research vol:14 issue:3 pages:279-298
Research has repeatedly established that the theoretical benefits of various scaffolds do not match their actual impact on learning. It has been argued that the instructional effectiveness of scaffolds largely depends on very detailed aspects of the learning activities associated with the scaffolds within specific environments. From this perspective and, in order to predict and control learning outcomes in the context of specific instances of scaffolds, there is a need for a detailed cognitive analysis of learning activities (e.g. analyses of students’ scaffold use). Accordingly, the current study investigated how students actually use adjunct questions while studying a text and how the quantity and quality of usage determine students’ learning outcomes (performance). Forty-two university students in two conditions were required to study a short science text for 15 min. Results revealed that the quality of students’ use of instructional devices accounted for their final performance.