Spectrochimica acta part b-atomic spectroscopy vol:58 issue:12 pages:2093-2104
An analysis methodology for the metallic contamination control of Ge wafer substrates has been developed and evaluated for six elements (K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn). Detection limits (DL) of Direct-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (D-TXRF) analysis on Ge wafers have been determined and found to be at the E10 at/cm(2) level. The values have been found to be a factor between 1 and 3 higher than on Si wafers, exclusively caused by differences in the background intensity. Additionally, a preconcentration procedure based on the Droplet sandwich etch (DSE) method has been developed. This method relies on the transfer of the surface and subsurface contaminants from the wafer to the liquid phase by wet chemical etching. Application of the DSE method on reference Ge wafers followed by analysis of the etch liquid by TXRF resulted in recovery rates (RR) of 40%. In an optimization study, it was found that the main DSE method parameters had limited influence on the RR. However, a detection efficiency study clearly demonstrated an underestimation by the TXRF analysis. An independent analysis for Ca, Cr, Fe and Zn by GF-AAS resulted in RR varying at approximately 100%. By internal standardization with the element La for the TXRF analysis, recovery rates could be increased to the 60% level. This underestimation by TXRF may find an origin in a matrix effect caused by the Ge etch products. By application of the developed DSE-TXRF method, DL at the E9 at/cm(2) level could be realized, with values, which are at least one order of magnitude lower compared to the DL of D-TXRF on Ge wafers. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.