Improved bioavailability of darunavir by use of kappa-carrageenan versus microcrystalline cellulose as pelletisation aid
Thommes, Markus × Baert, Lieven van 't Klooster, Gerben Geldof, Marian Schueller, Laurent Rosier, Jan Kleinebudde, Peter #
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics vol:72 issue:3 pages:614-20
The aim of this study was to produce pellet formulations containing a high drug load (80%) of the poorly soluble HIV-protease inhibitor darunavir, using wet extrusion/spheronization with kappa-carrageenan or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as pelletization aid. Drug release was assessed in vitro by a standardized paddle-dissolution test and in vivo by a single-dose pharmacokinetic study in dogs. Mean dissolution time (MDT) was 78.2+/-3.5 h from MCC pellets (1301+/-301 microm) and 6.1+/-0.7 min from kappa-carrageenan pellets (966+/-136 microm). In contrast to kappa-carrageenan pellets, MCC pellets did not disintegrate and showed a diffusion-controlled drug release. In line with the in vitro findings, the darunavir peak plasma levels and exposure after the administration of a 300 mg dose were more than 60-fold higher when formulated with kappa-carrageenan pellets when compared with MCC pellets, and 10-fold higher after co-administration with 10mg/kg of ritonavir. The relative bioavailability of darunavir versus the reference tablet (F(rel)) was 155% with kappa-carrageenan pellets and 2% with MCC pellets without ritonavir, while 78% and 9%, respectively, in presence of ritonavir. In conclusion, when compared with MCC pellets, the bioavailability of darunavir was substantially improved in kappa-carrageenan pellets, likely due to their better disintegration behavior.