Title: Cross-linking of wheat gluten proteins during production of hard pretzels
Authors: Rombouts, Ine ×
Lagrain, Bert
Brijs, Kristof
Delcour, Jan #
Issue Date: Jun-2012
Publisher: Springer
Series Title: Amino Acids vol:42 issue:6 pages:2429-2438
Abstract: The impact of the hot alkaline dip, prior to pretzel-baking, on the types and levels of crosslinks
between wheat proteins was studied. Protein extractability of pretzel dough in sodium dodecyl
sulfate containing buffer decreased during alkaline dipping [45 s, 1.0 % (w/v) NaOH, 90°C], and even
more so during baking (3 min at 250 °C) and drying (10 min at 135 °C). As reducing agent increased
the extractability partly, both reducible and non-reducible protein cross-links had been formed. The
decrease in cystine and Lys levels suggested beta-elimination of cystine releasing Cys and
dehydroalanine (DHA). Subsequent reaction of DHA with Lys and Cys, forming the potentially crosslinking
unusual amino acids lysinoalanine (LAL) and lanthionine (LAN), respectively, was observed
both in alkaline dipped dough (7 μmol LAN/g protein) and in end product (9 μmol LAL and 50 μmol
LAN/g protein). The baking/drying step increased sample redness and decreased Lys levels more than
expected based on LAL formation, suggesting that Maillard-derived cross-links also contribute to the
observed extractability loss. Higher dipping temperatures, longer dipping times, and higher NaOH
concentrations increased protein extractability losses and redness, as well as LAL and LAN levels in the
end product. However, no indications for Maillard-derived cross-links or LAL in pretzel dough
immediately after dipping were found, even when severe dipping conditions were used.
ISSN: 0939-4451
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Centre for Food and Microbial Technology
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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