During the last 20 years, psychological interventions and psychotherapy have acquired a modest but significant place in health care. The lack of a uniform legal definition of these professional activities in the domain of health care hampers quality control of training programs and delivered services and complicates coordination of care. Training requirements are not always made explicit, and often there are no mechanisms for quality control or for monitoring compliance with ethical codes of conduct. In this review, the legal regulation of the professional activity of psychologists in health care and of psychotherapists in 17 European countries is examined. Eleven of these have adopted a legal regulation the title and the professional activities of psychologists in health care. Seven have an additional law regulating the title and the professional activities of psychotherapists. In five countries, professionals other than psychologists and medical doctors can obtain a legally protected title and license to practice as a psychotherapist. Conclusions are drawn concerning the available models of regulation of psychotherapy and their respective consequences.