Relationship between endocardial activation sequences defined by high-density mapping to early septal contraction (septal flash) in patients with left bundle branch block undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy
Duckett, Simon G × Camara, Oscar Ginks, Matthew R Bostock, Julian Chinchapatnam, Phani Sermesant, Maxime Pashaei, Ali Lambiase, Pier D Gill, Jaswinder S Carr-White, Gerry S Frangi, Alejandro F Razavi, Reza Bijnens, Bart Rinaldi, C Aldo #
Europace vol:14 issue:1 pages:99-106
Aims Early inward motion and thickening/thinning of the ventricular septum associated with left bundle branch block is known as the septal flash (SF). Correction of SF corresponds to response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We hypothesized that SF was associated with a specific left ventricular (LV) activation pattern predicting a favourable response to CRT. We sought to characterize the spatio-temporal relationship between electrical and mechanical events by directly comparing non-contact mapping (NCM), acute haemodynamics, and echocardiography. Methods and results Thirteen patients (63 ± 10 years, 10 men) with severe heart failure (ejection fraction 22.8 ± 5.8%) awaiting CRT underwent echocardiography and NCM pre-implant. Presence and extent of SF defined visually and with M-mode was fused with NCM bull's eye plots of endocardial activation patterns. LV-dP/dt(max) was measured during different pacing modes. Five patients had a large SF, four small SF, and four no SF. Large SF patients had areas of conduction block in non-infarcted regions, whereas those with small or no SF did not. Patients with large SF had greater acute response to LV and biventricular (BIV) pacing vs. those with small/no SF (% increase dP/dt 28 ± 14 vs. 11 ± 19% for LV pacing and 42 ± 28 vs. 22 ± 21% for BIV pacing) (P< 0.05). This translated into a more favourable chronic response to CRT. The lines of conduction block disappeared with LV/BIV pacing while remaining with right ventricle pacing. Conclusion A strong association exists between electrical activation and mechanical deformation of the septum. Correction of both mechanical synchrony and the functional conduction block by CRT may explain the favourable response in patients with SF.