Journal of the American Chemical Society vol:127 issue:27 pages:9710-9720
An extensive series of conjugated (porphinato)zinc(Il)-based chromophores featuring nitrothiophenyl and nitrooligothiophenyl electron-accepting moieties has been synthesized using metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions involving [5-bromo-15-triisopropylsilylethynyl-10,20-diarylporphinato]zinc(II) and an unusual electron-rich Suzuki-porphyrin synthon, [5-(4-dimethylaminophenylethynyl)-15-(4',4',5',5'-tetramethyl[1',3',2']dioxaborolan-2'-yl)-10,20-diarylporphinato]zinc(II), with appropriately functionalized aryl and thienyl precursors. These donor-acceptor chromophores feature thiophenyl, [2,2']bithiophenyl, and [2,2';5',2 '']terthiophenyl units terminated with a 5-nitro group; one series of structures features these acceptor moieties appended directly to the porphyrin macrocycle meso-carbon position, while a second set utilizes an intervening meso-ethynyl moiety to modify porphyrin-to-thiophene conjugation. The dynamic hyperpolarizability of these compounds was determined from hyper-Rayleigh light scattering (HRS) measurements carried out at fundamental incident irradiation wavelengths (lambda(Inc)) of 800 and 1300 nm; interestingly, measured beta(1300) values ranged from 650 -> 4350 x 10(-30) esu. The combined linear and nonlinear optical properties of these compounds challenge the classical concept of the nonlinearity/transparency tradeoff in charge-transfer chromophores: the magnitude of the molecular hyperpolarizability is observed to vary substantially despite approximately uniform ground-state absorptive signatures for a given porphyrin-to-thiophene linkage topology. These data show that these neutral dipolar molecules can express substantial beta(1300) values; such conjugated, electronically asymmetric porphyrin-thiophene chromophores may thus find utility for electrooptic applications at telecom-relevant wavelengths.