Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry vol:379 issue:3 pages:484-494
The oxidation of the terpenes alpha- and beta-pinene, limonene and Delta(3)-carene by hydroxyl radicals has been investigated in a fast-flow reactor coupled to a liquid nitrogen trap for collecting the carbonyl compounds. Identification of the products was performed via 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH) derivatization of the carbonyls to form the mono- and di-DNPH derivatives, which were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC)-DAD (diode array detector) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Both electrospray ionization [ESI(-)] and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization [APCI(-)] were suitable for the detection of the DNPH derivatives of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, myrtanal, campholene aldehyde, perillaldehyde, acetone, nopinone, trans-4-hydroxynopinone and 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene. Also the mono-DNPH derivatives of the dicarbonyl compounds pinonaldehyde, endolim and caronaldehyde could be identified. The MS2 spectra generated in the ion trap of the mass spectrometer allowed us to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones on the basis of the characteristic fragment ion m/z 163 for the aldehydes. For the quantitative analysis of the mono-DNPH derivatives, ESI(-) in combination with single ion monitoring (SIM) detection showed the lowest detection limits. For the quantification of the dicarbonyl compounds, the acid-sensitive di-DNPH derivatives had to be formed by keeping the acidity in the acid-catalysed derivatization reaction at about 1.7 mM H2SO4. Detection of these dicarbonyl compounds can only be performed by APCI(-) with somewhat lesser sensitivity than by HPLC-DAD.