Building and Environment vol:46 issue:1 pages:22-37
Sports stadia are increasingly used to host a wide variety of activities that attract large attendances, ranging from sports matches to concerts, festivities and conferences. One of the crucial aspects of spectator comfort in open stadia is protection from wind and rain. However, in many stadia this part of spectator comfort is insufficiently taken care of. The main reason is that stadia and stadium roofs are often designed with only vertical rainfall in mind, neglecting the influence of wind that can sweep the rain onto the stands. This wind-driven rain (WDR) can reach a large area of the stand underneath the roof, resulting in discomfort for the spectators in this area. For stadium design, it is important to understand the interaction between wind and rain in different types of stadium geometry and its effect on wetting of the stands.