Monogerminal twin brothers aged 17 were admitted because of concurrent left-sided spontaneous pneumothorax. A familial background of this common disease in association with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) has been suggested; however, the actual mode of inheritance in association with HLA typing is still uncertain. HLA analysis in this family revealed the HLA-A24, B61 (40), Cw3, DR4, DR53, and DQ3 haplotype in the twins and their father, who also had a medical history of spontaneous pneumothorax. We report these cases as an extremely rare example of familial occurrence of spontaneous pneurnothorax. Copyright (C) 2001 S.KargerAG, Basel.