Relevance of organic farming and effect of climatological conditions on the formation of alpha-acids, beta-acids, desmethylxanthohumol, and xanthohumol in hop (Humulus lupulus L.)
De Keukeleire, Jelle × Janssens, Ina Heyerick, Arne Ghekiere, Greet Cambie, Joris Roldan Ruiz, Isabel Van Bockstaele, Erik De Keukeleire, Denis #
American Chemical Society, Books and Journals Division
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry vol:55 issue:1 pages:61-66
The concentrations of alpha-acids, beta-acids, desmethylxanthohumol, and xanthohumol were monitored in the hop varieties Admiral (A), Wye Challenger (WC), and First Gold (FG) during the harvest seasons of 2003 through 2005. Hops grown under an organic regimen were compared to plants grown conventionally in hop fields in close vicinity. The concentrations of the key compounds depended very much on climatological conditions showing, in general, highest levels in poorest weather conditions (2004). Of the three varieties studied, FG was the only one showing a clear trend for higher concentrations of secondary metabolites under organic growing conditions than under conventional farming conditions. Cultivation of A and WC seems to be very sensitive to climatic conditions and environmental stresses caused by pests and diseases, thereby leading to various results. WC proved to be a rich source of bioactive chalcones, particularly desmethylxanthohumol.