Tissue Engineering Part C, Methods vol:18 issue:2 pages:90-103
We report on the in vitro use of Ca2+/Pi supplementation as a bio-instructive medium to drive human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs) towards osteogenic differentiation on three-dimensional (3D) porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds. Through a multi-level factorial analysis, we have investigated systematically the biological effect and interactions of Ca2+ or Pi supplementation in three selected media preparations [i.e. basic growth medium (GM), osteogenic medium (OM) and osteogenic medium without β-glycerophosphate (OM-)] and have identified specific conditions which induce proliferation and significant osteogenic differentiation of 2D hPDC cultures. These findings were translated from 2D to 3D cultures conditions to instruct hPDCs to populate porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds and to differentiate into the osteoblast lineage with collagenous matrix production and subsequent matrix mineralisation on the 3D structures. These osteogenic hybrids may potentially serve as a clinically-relevant customisable bone reparative unit, providing a biomimetic template to more effectively mediate in vivo bone regeneration.