This study was conducted to document quantitatively the intraperitoneal temperature and desiccation during laparoscopic surgery. The temperature, relative humidity, and flow rate were measured in vitro and during laparoscopic surgery, at the entrance and at the exit of the abdomen. This permitted us to calculate desiccation for various flow rates using either dry CO(2) or CO(2) humidified with 100% relative humidity at any preset temperature between 25 and 37°C. The study showed that desiccation, both in vitro and in vivo, varies as expected with the flow rates and relative humidity while intraperitoneal temperature varies mainly with desiccation. Temperature regulation of bowels is specific and drops to the intraperitoneal temperature without affecting core body temperature. With a modified humidifier, desiccation could be eliminated while maintaining the intraperitoneal temperature between 31 to 32°C.