The paper gives a survey of the upcoming use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) for dimensional
quality control purposes: i.e. for traceable measurement of dimensions of technical (mechanical)
components and for tolerance verification of such components. It describes the basic principles of CT
metrology, putting emphasis on issues as accuracy, traceability to the unit of length (the meter) and
measurement uncertainty. It provides a state of the art (anno 2011) and application examples, showing
the aptitude of CT metrology to: (i) check internal dimensions that cannot be measured using traditional
coordinate measuring machines and (ii) combine dimensional quality control with material quality
control in one single quality inspection run.