Infection, Genetics and Evolution vol:11 issue:6 pages:1396-1406
RNA-RNA hybridization assays and complete genome sequence analyses have shown that feline rotavirus (FRV) and canine rotavirus (CRV) strains display at least two distinct genotype constellations (genogroups), represented by the FRV strain RVA/Cat-tc/AUS/Cat97/1984/G3P and the human rotavirus (HRV) strain RVA/Human-tc/JPN/AU-1/1982/G3P3, respectively. G3P and G3P strains have been detected sporadically in humans. The complete genomes of two CRV strains (RVA/Dog-tc/ITA/RV198-95/1995/G3P and RVA/Dog-tc/ITA/RV52-96/1996/G3P) and an unusual HRV strain (RVA/Human-tc/ITA/PA260-97/1997/G3P) were determined to further elucidate the complex relationships among FRV, CRV and HRV strains. The CRV strains RV198-95 and RV52-96 were shown to possess a Cat97-like genotype constellation. However, 3 and 5 genes of RV198-95 and RV52-96, respectively, were found in distinct subclusters of the same genotypes, suggesting the occurrence of reassortment events among strains belonging to this FRV/CRV/HRV genogroup. Detailed phylogenetic analyses of the HRV strain PA260-97 showed that (i) 8 genome segments (VP3, VP4, VP6, VP7 and NSP2-5) clustered closely with RV198-95 and/or RV52-96; (ii) 2 genome segments (VP1 and VP2) were more closely related to HRV AU-1; and (iii) 1 genome segment (NSP1) was distantly related to any other established NSP1 genotypes and was ratified as a new NSP1 genotype, A15. These findings suggest that the human strain PA260-97 has a history of zoonotic transmission and is likely a reassortant among FRV/CRV strains from the Cat97 and AU-1-like genogroups. In addition, a potential third BA222-05-like genogroup of FRV and HRV strains should be recognized, consisting of rotavirus strains with a stable genetic genotype constellation of genes also partially related to bovine rotavirus (BRV) and bovine-like rotaviruses. The detailed phylogenetic analysis indicated that three major genotype constellations exist among FRV, CRV and feline/canine-like HRV strains, and that reassortment and interspecies transmission events contribute significantly to their wide genetic diversity.