European Journal of Biochemistry vol:249 issue:1 pages:265-269
2-Methoxy-5-(2',3',4'-trimethoxy)-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one (MTC) is a colchicine analogue that lacks the B ring. 2-Methoxy-5-(2',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one (MD) is an A-ring analogue of MTC, in which one methoxy group is replaced by a hydrogen atom. This paper describes the kinetic features of MDC binding to tubulin, and compares its behaviour with MTC to analyse the effect of the A-ring modification on the recognition process by tubulin. Binding is accompanied by a strong enhancement of MDC fluorescence and quenching of protein fluorescence. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were obtained from fluorescence stopped-flow measurements. The kinetics are described by a single exponential, indicating that this drug does not discriminate between the different tubulin isotypes. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constant of the fluorescence increase upon binding increases in a non-linear way, indicating that this ligand binds with a similar overall mechanism as colchicine and MTC, consisting of a fast initial binding of low affinity followed by a slower isomerisation step leading to full affinity. The K-1 and k(2) values for MDC at 25 degrees C were 540+/-65 M-1 and 70+/-6 s(-1), respectively. From the temperature dependence, a reaction enthalpy change (Delta H-i degrees) of the initial binding of 49+/-11 kJ/mol(-1) and an activation energy for the second step of 28+/-9 kJ/mol(-1) were calculated. Displacement experiments of bound MDC by MTC allowed the determination of a rate constant of reverse isomerisation of 0.60+/-0.07 s(-1) at 25 degrees C and the activation energy of 81+/-6 kJ/mol(-1). The overall binding constant was (6.3+/-0.2)X10(4)M(-1) at 25 degrees C. Combination of these results with the kinetic parameters for association gives a full characterisation of the enthalpy pathway for the binding of MDC. The pathway of MDC is shown to differ considerably from that of MTC binding. Since its structural difference is located in ring A, this result indicates the use of ring A in the first step. The kinetics of the binding of MDC in the presence of some A-ring colchicine analogues (podophyllotoxin, 3',4',5'-trimethoxyacetophenone and N-acetylmescaline) and a C-ring analogue (tropolone methyl ether) suggest that the A and C rings are involved in the binding of MDC.