Aqueous humor (AH) samples from patients with Behçet's disease (BD) (n=29), Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease (n=21), and HLA-B27-associated uveitis (n=8), and 42 control patients were assayed for the neutrophil chemoattractants CXCL1/GRO-α and CXCL8/IL-8 and the lymphocyte chemoattractants CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10 and CXCL12/SDF-1 with the use of a multiplex chemokine assay. Chemokine levels except SDF-1 were significantly higher in the 3 disease groups than in normal controls. Considering all patients, mean GRO-α levels were 15-fold higher than IL-8 levels and mean IP-10 levels were 22-fold higher than MIG levels. In patients with the same disease activity, AH levels of GRO-α and IP-10 were significantly higher in patients with BD than in patients with VKH disease and HLA-B27-associated uveitis (p=0.0474; p<0.001, respectively). These data suggest that GRO-α and IP-10 are the predominant CXC chemokines involved in neutrophil and activated T lymphocyte chemoattraction in endogenous uveitis, particularly in BD.