Recently we described the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)(1) integrase (IN) with a cellular protein, lens epithelium-derived growth factor/transcription coactivator p75 (LEDGF/p75). We now present the study of the diffusion behavior of the three independent domains of IN and LEDGF/p75 using fluorescence correlation microscopy (FCM). We show that diffusion in the cell of the different enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion proteins is described by two components with different fractions and that the average parameters in the nucleus are comparable with those in the cytoplasm. In addition, we demonstrate that specific interaction between EGFP-fused HIV-1 IN and LEDGF/p75 results in a shift in diffusion coefficient (D). The opposite shift was observed in an IN-deletion mutant that does not exhibit LEDGF/p75 binding or in a LEDGF/p75 knock-down experiment using siRNA. We thus demonstrate that protein-protein interactions can be studied in living cells, using single-color FCM (scFCM).