Ruminants are an important reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7, therefore reducing E. coli O157:H7 excretion by these animals could play a key role in reducing human infections. The present study investigates the potential of bovine lactoferrin, a natural antimicrobial-immunomodulatory protein of milk, to prevent colonization and excretion of E. coli O157:H7 in sheep. The effect of two different doses of lactoferrin (1.5g or 0.15g per 12h) was evaluated on colonization of sheep intestine and faecal excretion of the NCTC12900 strain. Hereto, lactoferrin was orally administered to sheep during 30 consecutive days and sheep were experimentally infected with E. coli O157:H7 on the second day of the lactoferrin administration. Interestingly, both lactoferrin dosages significantly reduced the number of E. coli O157:H7 in faeces as well as the duration of faecal excretion. The high dose group showed a significantly higher antibody response against EspA and EspB, two structural proteins of the bacterial type III secretion system (TTSS), than the colonization control group. The results suggest that oral lactoferrin administration could be used to prevent persistent colonization of sheep with E. coli O157:H7.