HIV-1 entry inhibition by small-molecule CCR5 antagonists: A combined molecular modeling and mutant study using a high-throughput assay
Labrecque, Jean × Metz, Markus Lau, Gloria Darkes, Marilyn C Wong, Rebecca S Y Bogucki, David Carpenter, Bryon Chen, Gang Nan, Susan Schols, Dominique Bridger, Gary J Fricker, Simon P Skerlj, Renato T #
Virology vol:413 issue:2 pages:231-243
Based on the attrition rate of CCR5 small molecule antagonists in the clinic the discovery and development of next generation antagonists with an improved pharmacology and safety profile is necessary. Herein, we describe a combined molecular modeling, CCR5-mediated cell fusion, and receptor site-directed mutagenesis approach to study the molecular interactions of six structurally diverse compounds (aplaviroc, maraviroc, vicriviroc, TAK-779, SCH-C and a benzyloxycarbonyl-aminopiperidin-1-yl-butane derivative) with CCR5, a coreceptor for CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains. This is the first study using an antifusogenic assay, a model of the interaction of the gp120 envelope protein with CCR5. This assay avoids the use of radioactivity and HIV infection assays, and can be used in a high throughput mode. The assay was validated by comparison with other established CCR5 assays. Given the hydrophobic nature of the binding pocket several binding models are suggested which could prove useful in the rational drug design of new lead compounds.