Lower plasma CC16, a natural anti-inflammatory protein, and increased plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in schizophrenia: Effects of antipsychotic drugs
Maes, M Bosmans, E Ranjan, R Vandoolaeghe, E Meltzer, HY De Ley, Marc Berghmans, R Stans, G Desnyder, R #
Elsevier science bv
Schizophrenia research vol:21 issue:1 pages:39-50
Recently, it was suggested that in vivo activation of the monocytic and T-lymphocytic arms of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) may occur in schizophrenia and that antipsychotic drugs may modify CMI. The aim of the present study was to examine plasma soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), soluble suppressor/cytotoxic antigen (sCD8), interleukin-l receptor antagonist (IL-IRA), and Clara cell protein (CC16) concentrations in normal controls, nonmedicated schizophrenic patients, and schizophrenic patients treated with risperidone or loxapine. Plasma concentrations of IL-1RA were significantly higher in nonmedicated schizophrenic patients than in normal controls. Plasma CC16 was significantly lower in nonmedicated and loxapine-treated schizophrenic patients than in normal controls, whereas risperidone-treated patients had plasma CC16 levels which were not significantly different from normal controls. Plasma CC16 levels were significantly and positively related to age at onset of schizophrenia. Plasma sIL-2R was significantly higher in schizophrenic patients who were treated with risperidone than in normal controls and nonmedicated schizophrenic patients. The results show that (i) schizophrenia is accompanied by an activation of the monocytic arm of CMI (i.e., increased plasma IL-1RA) and lower plasma levels of a natural anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent, i.e. CC16, and that the latter may constitute a trait marker of schizophrenia; and that (ii) chronic treatment with atypical antipsychotic agents, i.e., risperidone, may normalize lower plasma CC16 and increase plasma sIL-2R.