Current Drug Metabolism vol:12 issue:4 pages:395-410
Enzymes are major drug targets in drug discovery and development processes in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. A recent survey found that nearly half of all the marketed small-molecule drugs are inhibitors of enzymes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of 28 enzymes capable of degrading the constituents of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the basement-membrane. MMPs play an essential role in several normal physiological processes including growth, wound healing and tissue repair. Over-expression and activation of MMPs has been linked to a range of diseases which include osteoarthritis, tumor metastasis, angiogenesis and cardiovascular diseases. The development of MMP inhibitors as therapeutic agents has kept an important place in drug discovery. Therefore, there is also an increasing need for robust analytical methods for evaluation of inhibitory potency and for the analysis of MMP inhibitors and their metabolites which can even play a more significant role than the parent drug. Modern analytical techniques and hyphenated instrumentations such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with a function of structure elucidation can provide a profound insight into the research of MMP inhibitors and also serve as a complementary method to zymographic techniques for the analysis of biological samples. This review mainly summarizes bioanalytical methods, pharmacokinetics and related metabolites of MMP inhibitors over the last 12 years.