Journal of food science vol:65 issue:4 pages:685-693
This study was undertaken to develop statistical approaches that can deal with variations in heating parameters when designing processes. In this context, the statistical variability of heat penetration parameters of a large amount of both hand-filled and machine-filled containers was investigated in different case studies. Two new statistical approaches are presented: an univariate and a bivariate statistical method. Both approaches appear successful for statistically based determination of heating parameters for process design. The statistical approaches also enable estimating the minimum number of heat penetration measurements to give reliable values to use in calculating safe thermal processes.