During the last years increasing evidence has indicated that patients at risk for coronary artery disease may benefit from beta-adrenergic blocking therapy in the perioperative setting. It has been demonstrated that even a relatively brief treatment with beta-adrenergic blocking drugs decreases the incidence of perioperative myocardial ischemia. Even more important is the observation that this reduction in perioperative ischemic events ultimately results in a decrease in long term cardiac morbidity and mortality. Despite overwhelming evidence on the beneficial effects of beta-adrenergic blocking in patients with coronary artery disease, many clinicians still feel some reluctance to use this type of drugs in the perioperative period. We organized a meeting to search for the major objectives that keep anesthetists from implementing prophylactic beta blocking therapy in their daily clinical practice. In this brief review we summarize the results of this meeting and discuss the current knowledge on this subject.