Plasmid DNA (pWRG7079::MOMP) expressing the major outer membrane protein of a human Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E strain was tested for the ability to induce an immune response and protect against experimental genital infection with the same serovar. The vaccine was tested in pigs, as they are genetically and physiologically related to humans and suitable for studying C. trachomatis infection of the genital system. To increase the immune response, GM-CSF, LTA and B and CpG motives were used as adjuvants. GM-CSF was administered seven days before immunization, while the other adjuvants were administered together with the vaccine. Ten pigs were randomly divided into two groups. One group received an intravaginal primo-vaccination and a booster of 500 μg pWRG7079::MOMP, while the other group received the placebo vaccine pWRG7079. All animals were challenged with 10(8) TCID(50) of C. trachomatis serovar E. Pigs immunized with the DNA vaccine showed significantly less macroscopic lesions, vaginal excretion and chlamydial replication in the genital tract, as compared to placebo-vaccinated controls. However, infection could not be completely cleared.