Peptides form a very versatile class of extracellular messenger molecules that function as chemical communication signals between the cells of an organism. Molecular diversity is created at different levels of the peptide synthesis scheme. Peptide messengers exert their biological functions via specific signal-transducing membrane receptors. The evolutionary origin of several peptide precursor and receptor gene families precedes the divergence of the important animal Phyla. In this chapter, current knowledge is reviewed with respect to the analysis of peptide receptors from insects, incorporating many recent data that result from the sequencing of different insect genomes. Therefore, detailed information is provided on six different peptide receptor families belonging to two distinct receptor categories (i.e., the heptahelical and the single transmembrane receptors). In addition, the remaining problems, the emerging concepts, and the future prospects in this area of research are discussed.