IEEE Transactions on Power Systems vol:27 issue:2 pages:821-829
In this paper, a steady-state multi-terminal voltage source converter high voltage direct current (VSC MTDC) model is introduced. The proposed approach is extended to include multiple AC and DC grids with arbitrary topologies. The DC grids can thereby interconnect arbitrary buses in one or more non-synchronized AC systems. The converter equations are derived in their most general format and correctly define all set-points with respect to the system bus instead of the converter or filter bus, which is often done to simplify calculations. The paper introduces a mathematical model to include the converter limits and discusses how the equations change when a transformerless operation is considered or when the converter filter is omitted. An AC/VSC MTDC power flow is implemented using MATPOWER to show the validity of the generalized power flow model.