Journal of Bone and Mineral Research vol:15 issue:8 pages:1510-6
Bone turnover requires the interaction of several proteases during the resorption phase. Indirect evidence suggests that the plasminogen activator/plasmin pathway is involved in bone resorption and turnover, and recently we have shown that this cascade plays a role in the degradation of nonmineralized bone matrix in vitro. To elucidate the role of the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) in bone turnover in vivo, bone metabolism was analyzed in mice deficient in the expression of PAI-1 gene (PAI-1-/-) at baseline (8-week-old mice) and 4 weeks after ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation (Sham) and compared with wild-type (WT) mice. PAI-1 inactivation was without any effect on bone metabolism at baseline or in Sham mice. However, significant differences were observed in the response of WT and PAI-1-/- mice to ovariectomy. The OVX WT mice showed, as expected, decreased trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and increased osteoid surface (OS/BS) and bone formation rate (BFR), as assessed by histomorphometric analysis of the proximal tibial metaphysis. In contrast, no significant change in any of the histomorphometric variables studied was detected in PAI-1-/- mice after ovariectomy. As a result, the OVX PAI-1-/- had a significantly higher BV/TV, lower OS/BS, lower mineral apposition rate (MAR) and BFR when compared with the OVX WT mice. However, a comparable decrease in the cortical thickness was observed in OVX PAI-1-/- and WT mice. In addition, the cortical mineral content and density assessed in the distal femoral metaphysis by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), decreased significantly after ovariectomy, without difference between PAI-1-/- mice and WT mice. In conclusion, basal bone turnover and bone mass are only minimally affected by PAI-1 inactivation. In conditions of estrogen deficiency, PAI-1 inactivation protects against trabecular bone loss but does not affect cortical bone loss, suggesting a site-specific role for PAI-1 in bone turnover.