Translocation t(12;16)(q13;p11) is regarded as a diagnostic marker for myxoid liposarcoma. Cytogenetic data on round cell liposarcomas and combined myxoid and round cell tumors is scarce, and the genetic basis of progression of myxoid tumors to high grade, round cell lesions is unknown. We have accumulated six round cell, four combined myxoid and round cell, and three myxoid liposarcomas for analysis. t(12;16)(q13;p11) was present in three round cell lesions and was detectable in all of the tumors by DNA analysis. In each tumor type, the CHOP gene in 12q13 was rearranged and fused to the TLS gene in 16p11. A variant TLS-CHOP RNA transcript was detected by polymerase chain reaction but did not correlate with clinicopathological data. No distinguishing cytogenetic or molecular markers for round cell or mixed lesions were found. The histogenic and genetic relatedness of myxoid and round cell liposarcomas is apparent from these data.