Journal of Cellular Biochemistry vol:99 issue:1 pages:229-240
Epidermal keratinocytes are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and induce vitamin D activity upon UVB irradiation. To find out whether this property is keratinocyte specific, we investigated this characteristic in two other cell types, namely intestinal CaCo-2 cells and the macrophage-like differentiated THP-1 cells. THP-1 macrophages and preconfluent CaCo-2 cells contain the vitamin D receptor (VDR), possess 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1 and CYP27A1) and 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) activity, and survive the low UVB doses essential for vitamin D3 photoproduction. Upon irradiation, 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) mRNA is induced in both cell types pretreated with the sterol Delta7-reductase inhibitor BM15766 whereby the 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) content was increased. Transfection studies in CaCo-2 cells with a vitamin D response element-containing construct revealed the involvement of the VDR in this UVB-dependent CYP24 induction. The CYP24 inducing activity in BM15766-pretreated UVB-irradiated CaCo-2 cells and THP-1 macrophages was identified as 1,25(OH)2D3 by combined high-performance liquid chromatography radioimmunoassay. Addition of vitamin D binding protein to the CaCo-2 cells attenuated UVB-induced CYP24 induction suggesting the possibility of a paracrine or autocrine role for the photoproduced 1,25(OH)2D3. In conclusion, preconfluent CaCo-2 cells and THP-1 macrophages are able to induce vitamin D activity upon UVB irradiation and hence combine all parts of the vitamin D photoendocrine system, a characteristic which is therefore not keratinocyte specific.