Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a transcriptional inducer of the interferon-beta (IFN-beta) gene and other interferon-stimulated genes. A GT repeat polymorphism in the 7th intron of the IRF-1 gene was used as a marker to test for association with multiple sclerosis (MS) in a case-control study including individuals from Germany, Northern Italy and Sweden. In none of these populations, did we find any significant allelic association with disease. This lack of association was confirmed by testing transmission disequilibrium of individual IRF1 alleles in a representative sample of Sardinian simplex MS families. No deviation of the expected 50% transmission rates was seen. Therefore, our work does not provide evidence in favor of IRF1 being a candidate for conferring genetic susceptibility to, or protection against, MS in Europe.