Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology vol:34 issue:6 pages:811-822
This study investigated hot and cool aspects of cognitive control in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study aimed to: (1) replicate the postulated response inhibition deficit of children with ADHD; (2) explore whether children with ADHD choose disadvantageously in a decision-making task and to explore the mechanisms underlying the expected response pattern; and (3) study whether performance on a combination of hot and cool executive control measures has predictive value for an ADHD diagnosis. The sample consisted of 20 children with ADHD and 22 normal developing children (NC, 8 to 12 years) matched on age, FSIQ, and gender. Two paradigms have been applied: (1) the stop signal paradigm, and (2) the adapted children's version of the IOWA Gambling task. There were no group differences for both paradigms. Both groups chose in a reward-oriented manner and seemed to develop the ability to take future consequences into account in making decisions. Moreover, feedback resulted in direct behavioral changes. Children with ADHD did not have a specific response inhibition deficit or a decision-making deficit.