Molecular genetics and metabolism vol:77 issue:4 pages:314-8
Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D resistant rickets (HVDRR) is a genetic disorder most often caused by mutations in the vitamin D receptor (VDR). In this report, we present our findings on a young girl who exhibited the typical clinical features of HVDRR with early onset rickets, hypocalcemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and elevated serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. The patient also had total body alopecia. Fibroblasts from the patient were cultured for analysis of the VDR structure and function. In [3H]1,25(OH)(2)D(3) binding assays, no significant specific binding to the VDR was observed in cytosols from the patient's fibroblasts. The patient's fibroblast were also totally resistant to high doses of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) as demonstrated by their failure to induce expression of the 24-hydroxylase gene, a marker of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) activity. DNA sequence analysis of the VDR gene uncovered a unique C to T mutation in exon 8. The mutation changed the codon for glutamine to a premature stop codon at amino acid 317 (Q317X). Restriction enzyme analysis showed that the patient was homozygous for the mutation. Both parents were heterozygous for the mutant allele. In conclusion, we have identified a novel mutation in the VDR, Q317X, as the molecular defect in a patient with HVDRR. The Q317X mutation deletes 110 amino acids of the ligand-binding domain of the VDR and results in the loss of [3H]1,25(OH)(2)D(3) binding and target gene transactivation.