A genetic predisposition involving complement regulatory genes has become evident in some patients with atypical HUS. In this paper, a patient with a heterozygous missense mutation in factor I (IF) is described. Although the serum level of IF was normal, a mild functional defect in the alternative pathway of complement could be demonstrated in the affected members of the family. After an episode of atypical HUS, chronic renal insufficiency started at the age of 15 months. Recurrence of HUS, with loss of the renal transplant, occurred twice in this patient. The recurrence of HUS in the graft was not reflected by haematological abnormalities (haemolysis, thrombocytopenia). One additional transplant was lost due to arterial thrombosis of the renal artery. This report confirms the gloomy outcome of renal transplants in patients with an IF deficiency. New therapies should be evaluated in these patients.