Mitochondria are bacteria-like semi-autonomous intracellular organelles that function as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells. Inactivation or destruction of these organelles may have far-reaching consequences regarding the viability of the cells and thus of tissues, organs and finally even the body. Since mitochondria resemble (degenerated) bacteria, we have extrapolated from both cytological and microbiological facts the existence of various (kinds of) mitochondrion-specific microbial pathogens, i.e., pathogenic micro-organisms that may damage or destroy the mitochondria from within. These mito-pathogens may include mitoviruses, mitoviroids and mitobacteria. Although these mito-pathogens have not yet been demonstrated in humans, their theoretical degenerative effect regarding energy production from energy-rich substrates, such as carbohydrates and fats, might explain diseases that have not yet been understood, such as prion diseases and post-traumatic muscle dystrophy. Therefore, these kinds of micro-organisms should be kept in mind.