Bremer, M. N × Valtchanov, I Willis, J Altieri, B Andreon, S Duc, P. A Fang, F Jean, Christophe Lonsdale, C Pacaud, F Pierre, M Shupe, D. L Surace, J. A Waddington, I #
Monthly notices of the royal astronomical society vol:371 issue:3 pages:1427-1434
We present details of the discovery of XLSS J022303.0-043622, a z= 1.2 cluster of galaxies. This cluster was identified from its X-ray properties and selected as a z > 1 candidate from its optical/near-infrared (IR) characteristics in the XMM Large-Scale Structure Survey (XMM-LSS). It is the most distant system discovered in the survey to date. We present ground-based optical and near-IR observations of the system carried out as part of the XMM-LSS survey. The cluster has a bolometric X-ray luminosity of 1.1 +/- 0.7 x 10(44) erg s(-1), fainter than most other known z > 1 X-ray selected clusters. In the optical it has a remarkably compact core, with at least a dozen galaxies inside a 125 kpc radius circle centred on the X-ray position. Most of the galaxies within the core, and those spectroscopically confirmed to be cluster members, have stellar masses similar to those of massive cluster galaxies at low redshift. They have colours comparable to those of galaxies in other z > 1 clusters, consistent with showing little sign of strong ongoing star formation. The bulk of the star formation within the galaxies appears to have ceased at least 1.5 Gyr before the observed epoch. Our results are consistent with massive cluster galaxies forming at z > 1 and passively evolving thereafter. We also show that the system is straightforwardly identified in Spitzer/IRAC 3.6- and 4.5-mu m data obtained by the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey emphasizing the power and utility of joint XMM and Spitzer searches for the most distant clusters.