PURPOSE: To evaluate a technique for time-resolved breath-hold contrast material-enhanced three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of the abdomen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective study, 43 patients underwent time-resolved MR angiography (acquisition time per data set, 7 seconds). The patients also underwent single-phase high-spatial-resolution MR angiography (acquisition time, 27 seconds) (n = 6), conventional angiography (n = 7), or both (n = 30). No bolus timing study was performed for time-resolved MR angiography. Image quality (presence of artifacts, ability to prevent venous overlap on arterial phase images, contrast enhancement) and demonstration of anatomic variants (renal arterial and venous variants, vena caval anomaly, visceral arterial variants) and vascular diseases were assessed. RESULTS: Time-resolved MR angiographic images were characterized by fewer and less severe artifacts, less overlap of enhancing veins, and better contrast enhancement than were single-phase MR angiographic images (P < .05). The mean sensitivity and specificity were 90% (nine of 10) and 100% (1 73 of 1 73), respectively, for detection of arterial anatomic variants and 93% (28 of 30) and 100% (324 of 325), respectively, for detection of disease. The technique also proved to be reliable for demonstration of venous disease. CONCLUSION: In comparison with current non-time-resolved MR angiographic techniques, time-resolved MR angiography is more robust and easier to perform and allows simultaneous evaluation of arterial and venous disease.