Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy vol:46 issue:11 pages:3356-61
Organotypic "raft" cultures of epithelial cells allow the reconstitution of a skin equivalent that is easily infectible with different viruses with cutaneous tropism. Among these, poxvirus and particularly vaccinia virus (VV) are good candidates for use in antiviral tests, giving histological pictures comparable to those observed in humans infected with smallpox. Therefore, we decided to evaluate a series of phosphonate derivatives for their ability to inhibit VV growth in epithelial cell monolayers, and the most powerful derivatives were tested in the organotypic cultures. The most active compound was 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine [(S)-HPMPA], followed by 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine, cyclic (S)-HPMPA, 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine [(S)-HPMPC; cidofovir, Vistide], and cyclic (S)-HPMPC. Cidofovir, which is on the market for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus retinitis in immunocompromised patients, is potentially a good candidate for the treatment of a poxvirus outbreak, in the absence of any vaccination.