Mild traumatic brain injury and fatigue: a prospective longitudinal study
Norrie, Joan × Heitger, Marcus Leathem, Janet Anderson, Tim Jones, Richard Flett, Ross #
Taylor & Francis
Brain Injury vol:24 issue:13-14 pages:1528-38
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To examine fatigue prevalence, severity, predictors and co-variates over 6 months post-mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). RESEARCH DESIGN: Longitudinal prospective study including 263 adults with MTBI. PROCEDURES: Participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey-Version 2 (SF-36v2). Complete data were available for 159 participants. Key measures; prevalence--RPSQ Item 6: severity--FSS. The effect of time on fatigue prevalence and severity was examined using ANOVA. Multiple regression analysis identified statistically significant covariates. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Post-MTBI fatigue prevalence was 68%, 38% and 34% at 1 week, 3 and 6 months, respectively. There was a strong effect for time over the first 3 months and moderate-to-high correlations between fatigue prevalence and severity. Early fatigue strongly predicted later fatigue; depression, but not anxiety was a predictor. Fatigue was seen as laziness by family or friends in 30% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Post-MTBI fatigue is a persistent post-concussion symptom, exacerbated by depression but not anxiety. It diminishes in the first 3 months and then becomes relatively stable, suggesting the optimum intervention placement is at 3 months or more post-MTBI.