Medical Image Analysis vol:6 issue:3 pages:183-190
A method for the retrospective correction of intensity inhomogeneities induced by the heel effect in digital radiographs is presented. The method is based on a mathematical model for the heel effect derived from the acquisition geometry. The model parameters are estimated by fitting the model to the image intensity data in the background or direct exposure area only where the heel effect is directly measurable, while the correction is then applied to the whole image. The method iterates between background segmentation and heel effect correction until convergence. We illustrate the performance of the method on flat field and phantom images and demonstrate its robustness on a database of 137 diagnostic hand radiographs.
Behiels G., Maes F., Vandermeulen D., Suetens P., ''Retrospective correction of the heel effect in hand radiographs'', Medical image analysis, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 183-190, September 2002.