Three cases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma with typical histologic and ultrastructural features were investigated cytogenetically. All three cases showed a reciprocal chromosome translocation characterized as t(9;22)(q22-31)(q11-12), thus confirming the findings in three previously karyotyped cases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma in the literature. These data add significantly to the evidence of t(9;22) being diagnostic for extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Other previously published cases with a range of complex karyotypes were less well defined morphologically. In cases with limited diagnostic material this karyotype might facilitate distinction from myxoid liposarcoma, which consistently shows t(12;16). Clear cell sarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and desmoplastic round cell tumor also show involvement of chromosome 22 with formation of a hybrid gene between the Ewing's sarcoma gene on band q12 and a transcription factor gene. Whether rearrangement of the Ewing's sarcoma gene is also present in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is not clear at present. Cloning of the (9;22) translocation might provide important clues to the pathogenesis of this type of chondrosarcoma.