The low molecular weight cyclin E isoforms augment angiogenesis and metastasis of human melanoma cells in vivo
Bales, Elise × Mills, Lisa Milam, Nancy McGahren-Murray, Mollianne Bandyopadhyay, Debdutta Chen, Dahu Reed, Jon A Timchenko, Nikolai van den Oord, Joost Bar-Eli, Menashe Keyomarsi, Khandan Medrano, Estela E #
Cancer Research vol:65 issue:3 pages:692-7
Immunohistochemical analysis has consistently shown that cyclin E is up-regulated in human malignant melanomas in vivo. Here we analyzed such expression in more detail and show that cyclin E is overexpressed and present in low molecular weight (LMW) isoforms in metastatic melanoma and in a subset of primary invasive melanoma tumor tissues, but not in benign nevi. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines, but not normal melanocytes, also expressed the LMW cyclin E forms. The biological significance of these findings was established by showing that overexpression of two LMW cyclin E forms named cyclin E truncated 1 [cyclinE(T1)] and cyclin E truncated 2 [cyclinE(T2)] in a low tumorigenic and non-metastatic primary cutaneous melanoma cell line generated angiogenic tumors with prominent perineural invasion compared with full-length cyclin E. In addition, cyclin E(T1)- and cyclin E(T2)-expressing melanoma cells displayed a dramatic increase in the incidence and number of metastases in an experimental lung metastasis assay. Together, these results indicate that the LMW cyclin E forms are functional and likely act as regulators of human melanoma tumor progression and invasion.